Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic —77; — and the Orange Free State — Trade was backed by naval power and by efficient handling of private and public credit, including substantial public borrowing via the Bank of England.
British Empire. In Warren Hastings's period the British were drawn into expensive and indecisive wars on several fronts, which had a dire effect on the Company's finances and were strongly condemned at home.
The following year, inthe United States declared independence. In southern India the British and the French allied with opposed political factions within the successor states to the Mughals to extract gains for their own companies and to weaken the position of their opponents.
If criticism of empire overlapped significantly with party affiliation, then surely questions of the extent to which criticism of empire was an expression of Whig ideology or of opportunism should have been raised and answered.
Despite some Jacobite successes in battle, the rebellions were ruthlessly crushed by the British army.